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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl968\margr5494\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn968\margrsxn5494\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx3467 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex83\expndtw21\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 ADMINISTRATION{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw-18 2 5 7}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li137\fi0\ri3226\sb94\sa0\sl-400\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw5\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 busy centres of life. \i\charscalex89\expndtw1 Epigraphs evidence}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri11\sb94\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw6\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 "We must also glean a few facts from the Basarh \expndtw2 seals\super 1\nosupersub  and other inscriptions about the working of Can\-dragupta's empire.   The king ruled with the advice and \expndtw5 assistance of his ministers \i (mantris\\ \i0 whose office was \expndtw3 often hereditary.\super 2\nosupersub     Some of them combined both civil \expndtw1 and   military   functions, and   they   accompanied   the \expndtw2 sovereign to the battle-field.    The empire was  divided \expndtw1 for   the     sake   of   administrative   convenience   into \expndtw3 several provinces   \i (desas \i0 or \i bhuktis) \i0 under  governors \i\expndtw2 (Uparika Maharajas \i0 or \i Goptas),    \i0 often princes  of the \expndtw3 blood royal; and next, there were the districts \i (visayas) \i0\expndtw0 and   their   subdivisions.     The   provincial   and   local \expndtw1 governments   were   carried  on by a   regular   bureau\-\expndtw4 cracy, and the Basarh seals give us the designations of \expndtw-2 a number of such offices, e.g., \i Kumdrdmdtya \i0 (counsellor \expndtw6 of a prince; or literally, one who was a minister since \expndtw-7 boyhood) ; \i Mabddanda-ndyaka \i0 (chief commandant); \i Vina-yasthiti-sthdpaka \i0 (censor ?); \i Mahd-pratfhdra \i0 (chamberlain); \i\expndtw1 Bbatdsvapati \i0 (lord   of  the  infantry  and   the  cavalry); \i\expndtw-5 Dandapdsddhikarana \i0 (office of the police chief), etc. It ap\-\expndtw0 pears from the Damodarapur copper-plates that the head \expndtw-7 of a district \i fyisayapat-i) \i0 was directly responsible to the pro\-\expndtw3 vincial governor, and was described as \i "tanniyuktaka." \i0\expndtw7 "He had his headquarters in an \i "Adbtsthdna"   \i0 where \expndtw-2 the office \i (f\super e\nosupersub  Adhikarana") \i0 was located.   He was assisted \expndtw1 by a council comprising representatives of the principal \expndtw5 local  interests   of  the   times,   ^.,   the chief \i Sefb \i0 or}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li454\fi0\ri0\sb227\sa0\sl-198\slmult0\tx580 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 1{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\i\expndtw-3 Ann. Kep. Arch. Surv.> \i0 1903-04, pp. 101-20.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li29\fi425\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-198\slmult0\tx580 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 2{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw2 The Udayagiri inscription   (C.I.I.,  III,  no.  6, pp.   34-56)\line \expndtw1 describes  Saba-VIrasena,   Candragupta IPs minister of peace and\line \expndtw-2 war, as   "anvayaprapta-Sacivyo  vyaprta-Sandhi-Vigrahah."    Simi\-\line \expndtw3 larly, the Karamdanck inscription \i (Ep. Ind., \i0 X, pp. 70 f) refers to\line \expndtw0 Kumaragupta  I's  minister, Prithvisena,    whose   father,  Sikhara-\line \expndtw2 svarnin,    was    himself a   minister   under   Candragupta   II.}\par }